Overloading Operators Using Friends In C++

Oct 27, 2016 · Use this command to enable or disable the sending of EPS information in the UGL Request message to the HLR. Assignment operator; They need to be friend functions if they need to access private. In this C++ tutorial, you will learn about Binary Operators Overloading, explained along with syntax and example. Operators overloading : : You can redefine or overload most of the built-in operators available in C++. OPERATOR OVERLOADING USING A FRIEND FUNCTION You can overload an operator for a class by using a nonmember function, which is usually a friend of the class. If an operator can be overloaded as a non-member function, then I have to make it a non-member function. An operator works on two or more operands and produce an output. Operator overloading also forms the basis of C++'s approach to Input/Output. C++ program to implement AVL Tree & its Operations; C++ program to swap two variables using function overloading. In addition, operators tend to have very specific meaning, and most programmers don't expect operators to do a lot of work, so overloading operators can be abused to make code unreadable. It is used to overload the operator in C++ and perform the operation on the user defined data type. This Operator Overloading in C++ online test is useful for beginners, freshers, experienced candidates, lecturers, developers preparing for GATE, job interview, university, semester exams, certification etc. The first form is to overload the operator as a member function of the class, and the second form is to overload the operator as a friend function of the class. The function can be defined inside or outside the class. and maybe introduce this challenge after teaching how to define classes would be much more appropriate. Sections of this page. In the same way we can overload + operator so that we can perform. Note also that when you overload operators, at least one operand must be a class object (or an enum). This is a list of operators in the C and C++ programming languages. Excel Macro Mastery 120,094 views. Basically, I find its syntax downright hateful, and really wish the language had dealt more cleanly with allocation and construction. An overloaded declaration is a declaration that is declared with the same name as a previously declared declaration in. , operator overloading Friend functions are also used to specify friend classes To declare all member functions of a class A as friends of another class B use the following declaration in the definition of the class A: friend class B; The friend relationship is neither symmetric nor transitive. In case overloaded operator function is a class member function, then it will act on the object with which it is called and use it as operand. Ostream Overloading • Can define operator functions as friend functions • LHS is 1st arg. It lets us extend operator overloading to user-defined types. all the material is sourced from the manufacturers or their authorized dealers/distributors. Mar 11, 2016 · Rules For Overloading Operators The following operators can be over loaded with the use of member functions and not by the use of friend functions: Assignment operator = Function call operator( ) Subscripting operator [ ] Class member access operator -> Unary operators, overloaded by means of a member function, take no explicit arguments and. Binary operators, when overloaded, are given new functionality. 79 videos Play all C++ Programming Language | C++ Tutorial Naresh i Technologies 5 Things I wish I knew When I started using Excel VBA - Duration: 12:45. Sep 02, 2017 · By Creating Operator function as global friend function. Operator Overloading - Binary Operators. By overloading the operators, we can use objects of classes in expressions in just the same way we use C++’s built-in data types. Overloading and >> operator using friend function implemented in C++. Overload Unary Minus (-) Operator using class Member function. 7 Overloading Binary Operators. C++ program to add two complex numbers using friend function overloaded operator. Manipulating of strings in C++ by operator overloading using character arrays, pointers and string functions. String class is created to implement these functions for the string operations. Operators that can be overloaded. Steps to follow when overloading operators using friend. C++ programming function overloading. Operator overloading allows the full integration of new class types into the programming environment. In this article, we will create a class that does support arithmetic operations through the use of operator overloading. On the contrary, the friend function needs the parameters to be explicitly. Binary Operator Overloading using friend function in C++ (Hindi) search giving you solved answers for the same. Operators overloading : : You can redefine or overload most of the built-in operators available in C++. Developed by industrial statisticians using proven methodologies for quality analysis and control, InfinityQS solutions are saving leading manufacturers millions of dollars each year. Output streams use the insertion (<<) operator for standard types. You will learn what is the difference. Furthermore, C++ does not automatically define != once you have defined ==. The non-member will have to be a friend if it needs access to protected or private data. Operator overloading-- is the creation of new versions of these operators for use with user-defined types. C++ offers none of those. It means the behavior of operators when applied to objects of a class can be redefined. Operator overloading means that the operation performed by the operator depends on the type of operands provided to the operator. Tarquiscani November 2018. release-compliance release-8. In C++, we can make operators to work for user defined classes. For now, we have been using operators on primitives, but sometimes it makes sense to use them on user-defined datatypes. Next lesson, we'll discuss the normal function way. + is overloaded using friend function : overload operator with friend « Operator Overloading « C++ Tutorial. New functionality may be added using non-member functions, friend functions, and operator overloading Summary. Overloading using Friend Functions. This allows you to define exactly how the operator behaves when used with your class and other data types. Therefore, an overloaded friend operator function is passed the operands explicitly. You will learn what is the difference. 3 Restrictions on Operator Overloading 18. Today we take another look at operator overloading in the C++ programming language. Friend functions are given the right to access the private data in a class, hence the oft-heard C++ joke, "Only friends can touch your private members. Friend functions are the functions which are declared inside the body of the class and defined outside the body of the class. Here is the above Point class with the overloaded operator<<. The research is part of the Milan Collabora initiatives, promoted by the municipality of Milan, aimed at promoting, animating and monitoring the experiences of collaborative economy in Milan. Mar 14, 2016 · Operator Overloading Solution hackerrank solution in c++, Operator Overloading Solution : HackerRank Problem Solution, Operator Overloading Solution hackerrank solution, Operator Overloading Solution hackerrank solution in java, Operator Overloading Solution count program in c, Operator Overloading Solution sum solution, Operator Overloading. Use of Subscript operator Overloading The most common use for subscript operator overloading is when we check index out of bound exception for an array. Overloading an operator by using a friend provides one very important feature that member functions do not. As we know that functions are the piece of code that can be used anywhere in the program with just calling it multiple times to reduce the complexity of the code. 3 Restrictions on Operator Overloading 18. This tutorial explains the concept of C++ function overloading and how it is used in programs. If an operator can be overloaded as a non-member function, then I have to make it a non-member function. The compiler determines which definition of addition to use depending on the number and type of operands. C++ solved operator overloading programs - C++ program for Unary minus (-) operator overloading - Make negative values of an object using Unary minus (-) operator overloading. - compare arrays using '==' and '!=' operators. Blog Archive 2012 (86) 2012 (86) June (86) 2011 (603) November (368) Program to Illustrates Virtual Function. Each of C++'s built-in operators has a certain number of operands. One way to overload insertion operator is to modify ostream class which may not be a good idea. Determining whether to use free functions or member functions for overloaded operators is a bit tricky, and we'll discuss it more as we continue our tour of overloaded operators. I didn't said that it should be. Friend functions are not members of the class and they do not have the ‘this’ pointer. Stream Operator (Insertion() and Extraction (>>)) Overloading in C++ by Programming Techniques · Published November 25, 2011 · Updated February 3, 2019 The stream can be used not only with standard data types nut also with user defined classes. " Now, if you have put the prototype as specified in the class declaration, and placed the function definition for Sum in the rational. Operator overloading lets us define the meaning of an operator when applied to operand(s) of a class type. Many operations have an “in-place” version. You have declared return type int but you are using it as Date. This article shows an example of using C++ operator overloading to make a simple class that will accept fractions from the standard input and output them to the standard output. Existing operators can only be overloaded, but the new operators cannot be overloaded. Jan 15, 2014 · In this c++ Video tutorial, you will learn how to overload short hand operators such as += and -= and also how to overload operators using friend function. Few operators in C++ such as +,-,++,>,<,<== etc. Let’s take a quick look at operator overloading with member functions. Operator Overloading is not evil. With overloaded operators : [], +, +=, <<, >>, ==, !=, <, <=, >, >= I cannot use the string object or include the library. The difference between member function and friend function is that the member function takes argument explicitly. Jan 11, 2016 · One of the advantages of working with C++ is the ability of the programmer to overload not only functions, but also operators as well. Write a CPP program to add corresponding elements of two 2D matrices using friend function. Passing by reference is used if a parameter's data flow is A. Overload Unary Minus (-) Operator using class Member function. Scott Meyers More Effective C++, p. 1 Overloading Overview C++ allows you to overload operators. It often times can be hard for soldiers to make sense of all the loud …. The difference between member function and friend function is that the member function takes argument ex-plicitly. com you have to register before you can become a member: Click the red colored register link to proceed. Operators overloading in C++: You can redefine or overload most of the built-in operators available in C++. I also guide them in doing their final year. the use of function overloading is to save the memory space,consistency and readabiliy. In addition, operators tend to have very specific meaning, and most programmers don't expect operators to do a lot of work, so overloading operators can be abused to make code unreadable. Difference between Operator overloading and Functional overloading?. */ #include using namespace std; class complex {float real,imag; public:. Notice that, = (assignment operator) does not need to be overloaded because this operator is already overloaded in C++ library. Because the left operand of the stream extraction operator is an object of class istream (like cin and not an object of our new class, we must. Operators to overload. Friend functions are the functions which are declared inside the body of the class and defined outside the body of the class. Operator Overloading should return a CLS type and not void. It will perform negation of all data member values of our class just like it works on basic data types. You can implement C++ operator overloads by providing special member-functions on your classes that follow a particular naming convention. 1 Introduction 18. 1) cout is an object of ostream class and cin is an object istream class. operator** from Fortran, but it raised difficult parsing questions for compilers. - Name of operator function. An example of manipulating colors will be used to illustrate the use of type conversion and operator overloading. Note that C does not support operator overloading. to compare two object of any class. As we know that functions are the piece of code that can be used anywhere in the program with just calling it multiple times to reduce the complexity of the code. Overloaded operator* to multiply two complex numbers. Overloading using Friend Functions. Mar 14, 2013 · Operator overloading is a form of Polymorphism. OPERATOR OVERLOADING USING A FRIEND FUNCTION You can overload an operator for a class by using a nonmember function, which is usually a friend of the class. 5 Overloading Stream-Insertion and Stream-Extraction Operators 18. David Wilkinson | Visual C++ MVP. Overloading the Stream Extraction Operator (>>>) Rather than writing a custon read method for a class, it can be convenient to overload the stream extraction operator to work with our new data type. com Source Codes Software Programs C++ Programs Advanced programs C++ program to perform arithmetic operations of two complex numbers using operator overloading C++ program to perform arithmetic operations of two complex numbers using operator overloading. Chapter 18 - C++ Operator Overloading Outline 18. 2] What are the benefits of operator overloading?. In these cases. Then use these functions in the overloaded operators that are not part of the class. The boost library uses operator, in boost. It is used to overload the operator in C++ and perform the operation on the user defined data type. One of the nice features of C++ is that you can give special meanings to operators, when they are used with user-defined classes. It is a feature through which most of the standard operators can be used with class objects. Implements various string operations using object orientation and operator overloading. It cannot be a member function since it will be. By an operator overloading non-member friend function. Operator overloading means giving ability to normal operators when they are applied to user defined data type. ob3 = ob1 + ob2; where, ob1, ob2 and ob3 are the objects of a class and operator + is overloaded in a way that we could just simple apply the + operator on the objects of class, in the same manner as we apply the. Date d2=d1-1. Write a CPP program to add corresponding elements of two 2D matrices using friend function. When you overload a unary operator you have to pass one argument. - array assignment. Apr 27, 2013 · In this program we can perform addition of two numbers using Operator overloading. two-way, into and out of the - 140…. In this article, we will create a class that does support arithmetic operations through the use of operator overloading. Operators Overloading in C++ You can redefine or overload most of the built-in operators available in C++. - compare arrays using '==' and '!=' operators. using +, extend them using +=, access individual characters via [], print them using <<, and compare them using ==, !=, <, <=, >, and >=. • The pointer to member dereference. It often times can be hard for soldiers to make sense of all the loud …. The overload of operators does not force its operation to bear a relation to the mathematical or usual meaning of the operator, although it is recommended. Overloading Arithmetic Operators. According to your code the assignment operator could be used as a friend function to class c and the bar function would work correctly as deep copy is implemented. When you overload a unary operator you have to pass one argument. Overloading of a non-member operator for a templated inner class. The US Army has utilized smart earplugs to enhance soldiers capabilities while on the battlefield. 4 Operator Functions as Class Members vs. But, the functions of these operators can also be extended for user-defined data-types as well, this is known as Operator Overloading. Example 3: Postfix Increment ++ Operator Overloading Overloading of increment operator up to this point is only true if it is used in prefix form. – The most popular choice for this was. Operator overloading is a way of providing new implementation of existing operators to work with user-defined data types. Your function is conflicting with the one defined in move. By overloading the operators, we can use objects of classes in expressions in just the same way we use C++'s built-in data types. This allows a programmer to use these operators in a very natural way with objects of classes that he / she has created. I have been using c++, c, Java, and, R programming languages. Mar 11, 2016 · Rules For Overloading Operators The following operators can be over loaded with the use of member functions and not by the use of friend functions: Assignment operator = Function call operator( ) Subscripting operator [ ] Class member access operator -> Unary operators, overloaded by means of a member function, take no explicit arguments and. Operator Overloading in C++ objective type questions with answers & explanation (MCQs) for interview & placement tests. In Java, we’re all missing better ways to interact with BigDecimal and similar types: Of course, operator precedence would take place as expected. The problem is in your Operator Overloading. In C++, we can make operators to work for user defined classes. In C++ operator overloading can be done using member functions, non-member functions or friend functions. When we overload operators as non-member functions,. My Cart: 0. Friend functions are the functions which are declared inside the body of the class and defined outside the body of the class. In C++ we can overload different operator to perform string operation as like as other number variable. Blog Archive 2012 (86) 2012 (86) June (86) 2011 (603) November (368) Program to Illustrates Virtual Function. Write a C++ program to Operator Overloading Using a Friend Function. For example, the operator op is an operator function where op is the operator being overloaded, and the operator is the keyword. Oct 20, 2016 · 2. We can develop more than one function with the same name. using +, extend them using +=, access individual characters via [], print them using <<, and compare them using ==, !=, <, <=, >, and >=. In the same way we can overload + operator so that we can perform. Operators Overloading in C++ You can redefine or overload most of the built-in operators available in C++. Learn all the programs you can expect to see in your #UniversityExam or #Lab! Jump to. Operator overloading is a way of providing new implementation of existing operators to work with user-defined data types. Manipulating of strings in C++ by operator overloading using character arrays, pointers and string functions. Consider following example to overload binary operator + using friend function. assignment operator = 3. Below is a way to help you understand the problem. Write the definition of a function half which recieves a variable containing an integer as a parameter, and returns another variable containing an integer, whose value is closest to half that of the parameter. you can simply use the existing method of overloading the bracket operator without resorting to less-favourable solutions. Create a class string with character array as a data member and write program to add two strings with use of operator overloading concept in c++. And, of course, we'll also summarize when to use each in more detail. C++ allows us to specify more than one definition for a function or an operator this property is known as function overloading and operator overloading. release-compliance release-8. This is a list of operators in the C and C++ programming languages. Because operator overloading allows the original programmer to change the usual semantics of an operator and to catch any subsequent programmers by surprise, it is considered good practice to use operator overloading with care (the creators of Java decided not to use this feature, although not necessarily for this reason). 06 - Overloading Operators. • Define default constructor to initialize str with an empty string • Define friend operator. Things like * - + print using << and access specific cell with [] [] Regarding the issue with using namespace std I simply forgot :) I need to change it - \$\endgroup\$ - benz Dec 10 '16 at 18:21. The answer is D! Teacher from Collage told me! a. As discussed earlier,we can overload unary operator using friend function also. The delete operator will accept the pointer do be freed and does not return anything, means return void. Operator overloading is not necessarily a bad idea - if you can actually keep the promise about "readability". specificity B. (until C++17) Because this operator may be overloaded, generic libraries use expressions such as a, void (),b instead of a,b to sequence execution of expressions of user-defined types. Next lesson, we'll discuss the normal function way. Operator overloading can provide more than an aesthetic benefit, since the language allows operators to be invoked implicitly in some circumstances. 001 base 10, with a scale of 4, is scaled to an integer of 100010. Most programming languages discriminate against programmer-defined types. The overload of operators does not force its operation to bear a relation to the mathematical or usual meaning of the operator, although it is recommended. Today opened a restart with eclipse, it is to write c ++ program. In previous post, I had talked about overloading binary operators using member function as well as friend function. ; We know that insertion (<<) and extraction (>>) are operators in C++ and just like other operators we can also overload this insertion and extraction operators. os which is really cout) so you can chain calls to '<<' and because cout/os object has changed class Complex {public:. C++ Operator Overloading Guidelines. The overloaded == operator compares two circles on the basis of their radii, i. Date d2=d1-1. In C++, operator overloading is a compile time polymorphism in which the operator is overloaded to provide the special meaning to the user defined data type. 79 videos Play all C++ Programming Language | C++ Tutorial Naresh i Technologies 5 Things I wish I knew When I started using Excel VBA - Duration: 12:45. Overloading with friend Function The friend functions are more useful in operator overloading. spirit , and other libraries. Friends and Overloaded Operators Give us the tools, and we’ll finish the job. – Also, C has no exponentiation operator, so C++ didn. However, there are situations, such as the one presented above, where rigidly following encapsulation results in inelegant code at best and an inability to solve a necessary problem at worst. In simple words, a C++ programmer can use operators with user-defined types. Implementing Operator Overloading in C++. In this module the basics of overloading operators were discussed. But let's see how to achieve the same using a non-member friend function. It is a feature through which most of the standard operators can be used with class objects. 07 - Subclass Superclass Virtual Functions Operator Overloading (friend) GUI Programming. In-place Operators¶. -Cannot create new operators! Overloading operators -Create a function for the class. So if we want to make them a member method, then they must be made members of ostream and istream classes, which is not a good option most of the time. Operator overloading is no different from regular function overloading in that the signature (not including the return type) must be different for overload resolution to be unambiguous. Apr 21, 2017 · 79 videos Play all C++ Programming Language | C++ Tutorial Naresh i Technologies 5 Things I wish I knew When I started using Excel VBA - Duration: 12:45. Friend function is a function that can access the data from private, protected and public class. You have declared return type int but you are using it as Date. The problem is in your Operator Overloading. Most programming languages discriminate against programmer-defined types. (until C++17) Because this operator may be overloaded, generic libraries use expressions such as a, void (),b instead of a,b to sequence execution of expressions of user-defined types. operator+=), the member function version is typically preferred. Thank you for reading! Please purchase a subscription to read our premium content. Overloading and >> operator using friend function implemented in C++. Consider the. In C++, it is possible to define operators such as + and -> for user-defined types. Operator overloading allows C/C++ operators to have user-defined meanings on user-defined types (classes). " Now, if you have put the prototype as specified in the class declaration, and placed the function definition for Sum in the rational. After knowing about the feature of operator overloading now let us see how to define and use this concept of operator overloading in C++ programming language. Aug 26, 2016 · Home C++ OOPS Program of BINARY OPERATOR OVERLOADING using Friend function. One of the nice features of C++ is that you can give special meanings to operators, when they are used with user-defined classes. I also guide them in doing their final year. Consider the. The operator function defined outside the class negates the individual data members of the class integer :. - Cannot create new operators! Overloading operators - Create a function for the class. Binary operators, when overloaded, are given new functionality. A line object is constructed using point objects, and I would like to know how I can overload the operator << so that I can print out the points used to construct the line. There are some C++ operators which we can't overload. While learning C++, I faced a query about operator overloading using friend function. A date is an ideal candidate for a C++ class in which the data members (month, day, and year) are hidden from view. Here, it is important. 06 - Overloading Operators. Follow the simple instructions. In C++, operators like '+', '-' have specified functions for native data-types. Notice that, = (assignment operator) does not need to be overloaded because this operator is already overloaded in C++ library. Operator overloading. In addition, operators tend to have very specific meaning, and most programmers don't expect operators to do a lot of work, so overloading operators can be abused to make code unreadable. The program uses the standard C++ library for these functions. Visit the post for more. Jan 01, 2017 · Here’s a Simple C++ program to find Volume using Function Overloading in C++ Programming Language. /* Program of UNARY OPERATOR OVERLOADING using member function */ #include #include class A {int a,b; public: void getdata(int r,int s) //parameterised constructor. Jul 09, 2015 · Shift Operators Overloading: अब हम ये जानेंगे कि Extraction व Insertion Operators को किस प्रकार से Overload किया जा सकता है। ये C++ का एक बहुत ही Powerful Feature है। Overloading हमें ये सुविधा देता है कि हम विभिन्न I/O. C++ program to add two complex number by using the concept of operator overloading using member function. As we know that functions are the piece of code that can be used anywhere in the program with just calling it multiple times to reduce the complexity of the code. Overloaded operators are functions with special names the keyword operator followed by the symbol for the operator being defined. operator< &) for some user-defined Foo < T >. Overloading stream insertion (<>) operators in C++. 07 - Subclass Superclass Virtual Functions Operator Overloading (friend) GUI Programming. Operator overloading is used to overload or redefines most of the operators available in C++. - array assignment. Operator overloading is helpful in cases where the operators used for certain types provide semantics related to the domain context and syntactic support as found in the programming language. An overloaded operator can be a friend to a class At least one operand of an. Notice that, = (assignment operator) does not need to be overloaded because this operator is already overloaded in C++ library. I am pretty clueless about how to code that. (until C++17) Because this operator may be overloaded, generic libraries use expressions such as a, void (),b instead of a,b to sequence execution of expressions of user-defined types. Search this site. 2 — Overloading the arithmetic operators using friend functions By Alex on September 26th, 2007 | last modified by Alex on November 25th, 2019 Some of the most commonly used operators in C++ are the arithmetic operators -- that is, the plus operator (+), minus operator (-), multiplication operator (*), and division operator (/). Basic program of Operator overloading. 4 Operator Functions as Class Members vs. A function name can be replaced with the operator using operator keyword. C++ is able to input and output the built-in data types using the stream extraction operator >> and the stream insertion operator <<. You can overload an operator using either a non-static member function or a global function that's a friend of a class. To make delete operators even more cleaner, make a Zap() inline function. It will also reduce (normalize) the entered fraction. A common use case for template friends is declaration of a non-member operator overload that acts on a class template, e. Listed below are functions providing a more primitive access to in-place operators than the usual syntax does; for example, the statement x += y is equivalent to x = operator. I didn't said that it should be. We have also written this program using Friend Functions. In Java, we’re all missing better ways to interact with BigDecimal and similar types: Of course, operator precedence would take place as expected. For example, division operator "/" divides two integers when used as a / b. Operator overloading means giving ability to normal operators when they are applied to user defined data type. In order to write functions to overload operators, we use the reserved operator keyword followed by the operator we want to overload. Operators that can be overloaded. Friend functions are the functions which are declared inside the body of the class and defined outside the body of the class. Operator Overloading What's the deal with operator overloading? It allows you to provide an intuitive interface to users of your class, plus makes it possible for templates to work equally well with classes and built-in/intrinsic types. Constructor. We cannot use friend function to overload certain operators. Furthermore, C++ does not automatically define != once you have defined ==. Overloading operators. You can know more on using the implicit operator in C# at the following link. friend and operator overloading are two distinct terms. For example, the number 10. 3 Restrictions on Operator Overloading 18. C++ Operator Overloading Guidelines. Operator overloading in C++ OOP , Basic program of… Function overloading in c++ and OOP with examples; Operator overloading Solved MCQ's (OOP) Delete Array Elements using Constructor Destructor… HexaDecimal to Binary Classes Constructor Destructor… Friend function and friend classes in c++ oop with examples. all the cylinders b. Overloading the operators >> and << using friend function cin >> a; In this statement >> is right shift operator which takes two operands, one is an object of istream and another is an integer data type. Operator Overloading Types for operator overloading - Built in (int, char) or user-defined (classes) - Can use existing operators with user-defined types. Friend functions are not members of the class and they do not have the ‘this’ pointer. Jul 04, 2015 · C++ lets you extend operator overloading to user-defined types, permitting you, say, to use the + symbol to add two objects. And, of course, we'll also summarize when to use each in more detail. 2] What are the benefits of operator overloading?. C++ allows you to specify more than one definition for a function name or an operator in the same scope, which is called function overloading and operator overloading respectively. class member access operator -> 4. assignment operator = 3. An example of manipulating colors will be used to illustrate the use of type conversion and operator overloading. All the operators listed exist in C++; the fourth column "Included in C", states whether an operator is also present in C. It lets us extend operator overloading to user-defined types. For example: To copy objects of same class, you can directly use = operator. C++ is able to input and output the built-in data types using the stream extraction operator >> and the stream insertion operator <<. For example, it is not very logical to use operator + to subtract two classes or operator == to fill with zeros a class, although it is perfectly possible to do so. Operator overloading in C++ OOP , Basic program of… Function overloading in c++ and OOP with examples; Operator overloading Solved MCQ's (OOP) Delete Array Elements using Constructor Destructor… HexaDecimal to Binary Classes Constructor Destructor… Friend function and friend classes in c++ oop with examples. Friend function is a function that can access the data from private, protected and public class. Overloading the operators >> and << using friend function cin >> a; In this statement >> is right shift operator which takes two operands, one is an object of istream and another is an integer data type. Explain Operator Overloading. Operators that can be overloaded. C++ PROGRAM TO DO ELECTRICITY BILL CALCULATION; OPERATOR OVERLOADING - ADDITION, SUBTRACTION OF MATRICES USING OPERATOR OVERLOADING; C++ program to overload the unary minus operator using friend function. 2] What are the benefits of operator overloading?. Operator overloading function can be made friend function if it needs access to the private and protected members of class. Notice that, = (assignment operator) does not need to be overloaded because this operator is already overloaded in C++ library. Friend functions are not members of the class and they do not have the 'this' pointer. 2 Fundamentals of Operator Overloading 18. Operator Overloading Using a Friend Given the code above, we want to overload the addition operator to write: array3=array1 + array2; This involves some manipulation on the code in Section 1.